O litoral de JoÃo Pessoa (PB), frente ao problema da erosÃo costeira




The JoÃo Pessoa- PB coast like other places of the Brazilian Northeastern, show erosive problems associated to natural process and a urban disorder occupation, that happened from the 70 decade, of last century, when the city began expanding towards the beaches. This work was onjective to classify the study area in relation to coastal erosion vulnerability. The quantification of coastline variations was carried out based in cartographic and photographic documents of several dates (1969 - 1985 - 2005) besides, the characterization of the vertical morphologic variations, topographical profiles of the beaches analysis of beaches sediments, in thirteen places distributed along ten beaches. The results of coastline variations in medium time showed an increase of areas with erosive problems in JoÃo PessoaÂs coast associated to urban pressure, in the last decades. In relation to the morphologic variation, in short time, it was possible to make a of diagnostic the beaches with erosive tendency (Bessa, Ponta do Cabo Branco, Seixas, Penha e Sol). The granulometrical analyses revealed the prevalence of fine sands in the sections with erosive problems. Most beaches presented distributions that varied between medium to fine sands. The sub-section A (Bessa beach) presented a vulnerability between moderate to high; The sub-sections B (Tambaà beach), C (north region of Cabo Branco beach), E (Arraial beach and JacarapÃ), F (Sol beach) and G (Barra of Gramame beach) presented a moderate vulnerability degree. The sub-section D, including the Cabo Branco, Seixas and Penha presented a high vulnerability. Finally, it was verified that physical environment characteristics didnÂt avoid the urban growth on geological unstable places of JoÃo PessoaÂs coast. However, coastal erosion problems already installed as the growth of the city towards the beaches of the south coastal section. It is suggested a urban development with management and it is in those areas indispensable to know the complex processes that occurs a that beaches not urbanized should obey larger area without urbanization.


vulnerabilidade variations of coastline, vulnerability, coastal erosion. geociencias variaÃÃes da linha de costa erosÃo costeira

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