Simulação, analise e otimização das colunas atmosferica e debutanizadora da unidade de destilação do refino de petroleo / Simulation, analysis and optimization of the atmospheric and debutanizer columns of the petroleum distillation unit




The crude distillation unit is the most important in the refining process. Its importance is due to the fact that this unit is responsible for the first fractionation of the petroleum in various products (fractions) as naphtha, kerosene, diesel and others. Some of these fractions obtained are removed as final product and others can be processed in other units of the refinery. In this way, all the operating and disturbance changes that occur in this unit affect directly other units. So, it is possible to verify the dependence of the others units related to the distillation unit that requires flexibility to supply the needs of the refinery. Furthermore, it is possible to observe that the crude distillation is complex due to the great number of different components of the petroleum. According to the aspects and the importance of the crude distillation, a study was carried out for the verification of the crude distillation flexibility and the knowledge of the distillation process, intending the development of the crude distillation. Initially, a crude distillation process, involving a Pre-Flash Drum, Atmospheric and Debutanizer Columns was considered in this work. Three main aspects were studied: the complete analysis of the main process variable, the optimization of the Atmospheric and Debutanizer Columns and the evaluation of the processing of the light, intermediate and heavy petroleum under specified conditions. The computational simulations were carried out, using commercial software in this study. The analysis of the main process variables allowed that the effects on the process were verified. This means that the sensitivity analysis of the main process variables could be made, showing the main effects caused by the variable changes. The optimization of the number of trays and the feed tray of the Debutanizer Column was carried out for the minimization of the reboiler duty. Furthermore, the optimization of the tray of the Atmospheric Column was done for the minimization of the residue flow rate. The evaluation of the results for the processing of three different types of petroleum allowed verifying the significant increase of the residue atmospheric flow rate and the reduction of the products, except heavy diesel in the considered crude distillation process, involving, in this case, the Prefractionation and Atmospheric Column


petroleo - refinarias distillation atmospheric column petroleo petroleum debutanizer column destilação

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