"Salvar a la generación perdida": gubernamentalidad, empleabilidad y cultura del trabajo. El caso de un programa de empleo para jóvenes en Argentina


Rev. Sociol. Polit.




The aim of this article is to analyze how political and institutional logics associated with management and production of youth employment, work. We assume that these government interventions are designed attending mainly to employability and, moreover, they contribute to shape work culture. We analyze the case of a youth employment policy named Programa Jóvenes con Más y Mejor Trabajo (PJMyMT ), implemented by the Ministerio de Trabajo, Empleo y Seguridad Social de la Nación ( MTEySS ) , in Córdoba, Argentina . To seek our aims, we use a technique of gathering qualitative data from interviews with both members of the technical staff from PJMyMT and government employees from the MTEySS, during the years 2011 and 2012. Here we explored the meanings they´ve create around the diagnosis of youth unemployment, the place that the state should have related to it and the particular type of intervention that is proposed from the notion of employability, in the context of active employment policies. We used to process data, the strategy of content analysis. The study we´ve made over the political and institutional logic, allowed to reconstruct the senses built by agents that implement it and also, the practices that the device leads. Thus, a first conclusion realizes that "employability " is defined as a privileged object of intervention of this state program, leading to instances around logics of routinization and discipline oriented to the production of certain categories of subjectivity around work. In this sense, the PJMyMT is defined in terms of pedagogical strategies focused on training layouts, habits and attitudes to work, rather than strictly a function trainer. Thus, the second conclusion is that this logic is inserted, as we understand it, as an intervention in the setting of the work culture in which the discourse of employability is structured around the value of effort and held over a scheme in which the work culture and tradition emerges as horizon of meanings, appearing as an effective field production of legitimacy for public policies. Finally, we understand that these discourses contribute to build a meritocratic logic and legitimacy criterion for the allocation of state resources, a process that can be read as the persistence of a voluntarism conception of labor practices and as a residual element of the neoliberal worldview, which agents and officials seek to argue. The results of this article are oriented to open a debate in the analysis of the youth labor market devices, to separate ourselves analytically from an institutionalism view of government programs in order to understand, instead, the effects of power that they produce in their recipients.

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