Exposição e reatividade do prematuro ao ruído intenso durante o cuidado em incubadora / The Preterm babiesexposition and reactivity at the intense noise during care in incubators.




Introduction: The sound levels found in incubators and the additional noise generated during the manipulation of them reveal that the preterm and high-risk newly born babies (RN) are exposed to a noisy environment and are kept for long periods in this environment without chance to have auditive rest. Objectives: To evaluate the exposition of premature babies and their reactivity to the incubator noise during the care delivered in the intermediate care neonatal unit of a school hospital in Ribeirão Preto - SP, Brazil. Method: Prospective observational study performed in the intermediate care neonatal unit of a school hospital in Ribeirão Preto. A total of 35 premature babies participated in the evaluation of noise levels and sources. The analysis of the physiological (cardiac frequency and oxygen saturation) and behavioral (reflexive, bodily, facial activities and sleep and awake pattern) responses to intense noise was also performed in 20 of the babies studied. The noise levels were measured through the sound pressure level meter (NPS), dosimeter Quest-400, fixed inside the incubator for two hours during the care delivered to the newly born baby. The noise sources as well as the physiological and behavioral responses were investigated when Lmax above 65dBA was identified. These responses were filmed using four cameras connected to a video card installed in a computer. Results: The Leq was around 47.6 to 88.7dBA, and all of them were exposed to Leq above the limit 45dBA recommended by international organizations. More than half were exposed to average Leq above 60dBA, allowed in incubators by the Brazilian norms. The Lmin varied from 46.9 to 61.6dBA, the Lmax from 49 to 97.2dBA and the Lpeak from 87 to 135.7dBA. The main sources of intense noise were: chat in the unit and around the incubator, balcony handling, the RN vocalization, opening and closing the portholes and moving chairs in the unit. The differences in the cardiac frequency and in the oxygen saturation were not significantly different in the previous and post periods to the intense noise. When exposed to intense noise, 63.2% of the RN reacted with the cochleopalpebral and 20% with the startle reflex, 42.1% presented facial expressions, 55% body activities and 60% changed their sleep and wake pattern. There were statistically significant differences between the periods analyzed. Conclusion: The sound levels measured were intense and from several sources: team and family chatting, the own baby?s manifestations, direct care to the RN, handling the incubator and external environment around it and in the nursing ward of the neonatal unit. It is believed that the noise from these sources can be minimized by changes in the professionalsattitudes. It is evidenced that the noise to which the babies are exposed in the incubators during the care delivery constitutes a stressing event because it modifies the RNs behavior, eliciting reflexive, bodily responses, facial manifestations and changing their sleep and wake states when facing intense and abrupt noises.


incubators reactivity-stability prematuro neonatology noise neonatologia reatividade-estabilidade premature ruído incubadoras

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