Bacteremia in pediatric patients with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation


Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther.




Abstract Background This study aimed to describe the incidence, microbiological profile, and risk factors associated with bacteremia in pediatric patients with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Methods A retrospective cohort study was performed on patients under 18 years old who underwent HSCT due to any indication, between January 2012 and January 2017. The patient data were collected from the first 100 days post-HSCT. Bacteremia was defined as the isolation of bacteria from at least one blood culture. The relation between bacteremia and associated risk factors was evaluated using univariate and multivariate analysis. Results We enrolled a total of 111 pediatric patients who received HSCT during the period of study. The total number of patients who developed at least one episode of bacteremia was 46 (41.4%), and the total number of bacteremia episodes was 62. Rectal swabs were performed in 44 patients to detect prior colonization and this showed that 25% of them were positive, the main pathogen isolated being carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae. The Gram-negative bacteria cases accounted for 60% of 62 events. The main Gram-negative bacteria isolated were Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli and the majority were resistant strains. The mortality rate on day +100 for the whole cohort was 18% (n = 20). Regarding the patients with bacteremia, the mortality rate on day +100 was 30% (n = 14), and the cause of death was related to infection in 10 of them. We did not find any statistically significant risk factor for the development of bacteremia. Conclusion Bacteremia is common after HSCT, and there is a high frequency of resistant Gram-negative infections which is related to high mortality.

Documentos Relacionados