Cuidado de Enfermagem ao paciente com acidente vascular encefálico: revisão integrativa

Autor Principal: Suzana Maria Bianchini
Tipo: Teses/dissertações
Idioma: Português
Publicado em: 2009
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Stroke is a devastating disease.

It has been the most frequent cause of death in Brazil for years.

There are two kinds of stroke: ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke.

The former occurs in about 87% of patients and the latter is less frequent and more lethal.

Treatment of stroke must be quick as the therapeutic window for ischemic thrombolysis is within three hours of the start of symptoms, with chances of minimal or no sequelae.

As stroke is more impairing than lethal, nursing plays a key role in ensuring that both diagnosis and start of treatment occur as rapidly as possible.

This integrative review aims at searching and analyzing the literature for available evidence about nursing care in the acute phase of stroke, encompassing the first 48 hours with neurologic deficit maintenance.

The LILACS, MEDLINE and CINAHL databases were investigated with cross-examination of specific descriptors and key words for each base.

After inclusion and appropriateness criteria were used according to the objectives of the integrative review, ten studies were divided into four groups and analyzed: care within physiologic parameters and positioning; care with thrombolytics; knowledge as care; neurologic evaluation and best practices in nursing care.

Results show various causes of concern in the acute phase, such as abnormal blood pressure values, oxygen saturation, blood glucose, position of head section for better flow of blood in stroke use of thrombolytics and care in rare situations as well as general aspects of stroke, neurological evaluation scales and result indicators in nursing care.

These results raise issues for reflection, such as the concern with the creation of stroke units with skilled, trained professionals and investment in continuing education for nurses, including all phases of care to stroke patients.

The lack of evidence-based studies points to the need of methodologically sound research, which allow of metanalysis of results and clinical research