This research tried to highlight the inauguratory character of the Benefício de Prestação Continuada - BPC (Cash Transfer Program) as a no-contributory social right in a country which historically had as its mark a regulated citizenship and therefore waged work and social protection for its population were never made universal.

The analysis made located the historical movement of the conquest of this right in the cultural, political and social Brazilian dynamic that displaces the poor from their citizenship condition, struggled to approve the BPC in the Constitutional Convention, from which the 1988 Federal Constitution was originated, as well as discussed thoroughly the ambiguities that pass throughout the very own history of the social work in the Brazilian society.

In the perspective to discuss thoroughly and contribute to the BPC consolidation, this study analyzed the support and resistance power in the process of the BPC constitution, discussed the nature of this benefit in the bounds of social work and identified the attempts of dismemberment and retrocession that surrounded its definition and implementation.

It was also possible to think about BPC in its articulation with Unified System for Social Assistance - SUAS, its challenges and possibilities to include its beneficiaries in programs, projects and social work services.

It s assumed that the social work is bound to social protection fields as one of the social politics that constitutes the Brazilian Social Security.

Being so, to assume that the social protection as a right to all citizens expresses a rupture of a culture that forwards social rights to waged work, defining a new relation between the state and the society based on the conception of universal citizenship.

From Campinas, SP, focusing on the BPC beneficiaries - elderly and disabled people and their interlocutors; this study tried to demonstrate the BPC perception as a social assistance right, highlighting the conditions of access and maintenance of this benefit, an identification of its expenses by the beneficiaries, its articulation with CRAS (Social Reference of Social Assistance Center), the social control and its interfaces with INSS (Social Security) related to its operationalization.

As well as methodological procedures, documental and bibliographic research, this essay was based on empiric research with a qualitative approach and semi-structured interviews with BPC beneficiaries, social workers who work for CRAS (Social Assistance Reference Center), social workers responsible for the revision of this benefit in Campinas city, INSS (Social Security) solicitor and members of the City Council for the elderly and the disabled.

The produce of this work is displayed in four chapters and the results show a fragile vision about BPC as a social assistance right with constitutional base, a consequence of a political culture with low inscription in the fields of human rights